National identity plays an increasingly important role in Western, liberal democracies. Thus, immigration and diversity are often considered a threat to national identities and restrictions on immigration and nation-building policies are being implemented in response. Specifically, it has been suggested that diversity drives down social cohesion and thus the ties that bind people together in stable, democratic welfare states.
National Identity and Social Cohesion considers the role of national identity in contemporary societies and in particular its significance for social cohesion. National identity impacts perceptions of belongingness, which again impact considerations of deservingness. Perceptions of deservingness, in turn, play an important role for solidarity within the framework of a welfare state. Furthermore, immigration, and the associated questions of belongingness, have been a driver in processes of political polarization. In some cases, political leaders frame minorities as a threat to the nation state warranting a departure from liberal democratic institutions.
This book considers questions such as: What role does national identity, more precisely, play for political polarization? Do national identities mediate/moderate the impact of diversity on social cohesion, including trust and solidarity? Has identity politics contributed to a politics of resentment and can more inclusive national identities serve to diminish polarization?
In the book, these and other questions about the relation between national identity, belonging and social cohesion are considered by a number of prominent scholars in the field.
Nils Holtug is Professor of Political Philosophy, University of Copenhagen.Eric M. Uslaner is Professor Emeritus of Government and Politics, University of Maryland.
1. Introduction: National Identity and Social Cohesion, Nils Holtug and Eric M. Uslaner
PART I: NATIONAL IDENTITY AND ATTITUDES TO IMMIGRANTS
2. Why National Identity Matters, Francis Fukuyama
3. National Identity Across Two Dimensions, Christian Albrekt Larsen
4. When Playing by the Rules is not Sufficient: Citizenship Criteria in Ethnic, Cultural and Civic Citizenship Concepts, Marc Hooghe
5. Normative Foundations and Limits of the Hidden Consensus in American Public Opinion about Immigration, Morris Levy and Matthew Wright
6. Culture, Trust and Religious Markers in Diverse States, Patti Tamara Lenard
7. Intra- and Intergenerational Cleavages in National Identity in Denmark, Kristian Kongshøj
8. Belonging and Exclusion: Politics of Belonging and Anti-Immigrant Attitudes in Germany, Madlen Preuß, Andreas Hövermann and Markus Weyhofen
PART II: SOCIAL COHESION
9. Why Rawls Was Right: Liberal Values and Social Cohesion, Nils Holtug
10. ‘Walk a mile in my shoes!’ Ethno-cultural Empathy, Welfare Chauvinism and the Limits of Community in Post-migration Crisis Germany, Markus M. L. Crepaz
11. New Social Challenges Demand New Research Perspectives: Diversity and the Role of Different Forms of Intergroup Contact, Miguel R. Ramos and Miles Hewstone
12. Is there a Link between Non-Western Immigrants’ Commitment to ‘Shared Values’ and their Social Trust? Karen Nielsen Breidahl
13. Coreligionist Populist Attitudes towards Syrian Refugees in Turkey, Ali Çarkoğlu and Ezgi Elçi
PART III: POLARIZATION AND THREATS TO LIBERAL DEMOCRACY
14. Populism and Constitutionalism: Theory and Practice, Cas Mudde
15. National Identity and Political Polarization, Eric M. Uslaner
PART IV: THE CIVIC TURN
16. The Margins of Citizenship Education in Systems with a ‘Broken Ladder’: Status Inequality and Democratic Outcomes of Tenth Grade Students in Flanders, Dimokritos Kavadias, Nohemi-Jocabeth Echeverria Vicente and Bram Spruyt
17. Conclusion, Eric M. Uslaner and Nils Holtug
Online appendix provided by National Identity and Social Cohesion editors by Nils Holtug and Eric M. Uslaner
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